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The chloral hydrate is melted in a distilling flask (250 c.c.) and
the fuming nitric acid added.* The mixture is heated carefully
over a small flame until the reaction sets in. After a few
minutes red fumes are evolved, consisting mainly of nitrogen
tetroxide. The reaction proceeds without the application of
heat, and is complete when, on warming the liquid, nitrous
fumes cease to come off. The product is now distilled ; below
123 excess of nitric acid distils ; between 123 and 194 n.
mixture of trichloracetic acid and a small quantity of nitric acicl
pass over, and at 194196 nearly pure trichloracetic acicl
collects in the receiver and solidifies on cooling. It is advisable
to distil the last fraction with a condenser-tube only. The
fraction boiling at 123190 is treated with a fresh quantity of
fuming nitric acid (10 c.c.), and the product- purified as before.
Yield, 1015 grams.
CC13.CO.H + O = CC13.CO.OH.
Properties. Colourless, rhombohedral crystals ;   m. p. 52 ;
b. p. 195.    See Appendix, p. 257.
Oxalic Acid,     |             +2H0O
Scheele (1776), Naumann,   Moeser,   Lindenbaum, /.
Cham. 1907, 75, 146.
140 c.c. cone, nitric acicl.
20 grins, cane sugar.
o'l grm. vanadium pentoxide.
The nitric acid is warmed gently on the water-bath in a
flask(i litre) with the addition of the vanadium pentoxide. It Is
then placed in the fume cupboard and the cane sugar at onc<*
added. As soon as torrents of brown fumes begin to be evolved,
the flask is placed in cold water. After the reaction has ceasecl tli o
liquid is left for twenty-four hours when colourless crystals of
the acid separate. A further small quantity may be obtained
from the mother liquor on standing. The crystals are drained on
a small porcelain funnel without filter paper, and recrystallisecl
from a very small quantity of water. Yield, 1520 grams.